Water Purification Systems Reduce Contaminants in Drinking Water
When purifying water, undesirable chemicals, suspended gases and solids and biological contaminants are removed from the water. The aim is to produce water that is fit for several specific purposes, as well as for human consumption and industrial applications as well as chemical, medical and pharmacological applications. The methods used generally include sedimentation, membrane separation, biological processes, filtration, ion exchange, disinfection and distillation and also make use of processes such as flocculation, active carbon, chlorination, various media filters and Ultra violet sterilisation.
A water purification system reduces the concentrations of particulate matter that also includes algae, fungi, parasites, viruses, bacteria and suspended particles and in addition also dissolves materials that have accumulated at the surface of the water after heavy rains. The quality and standard of drinking water is determined by international standards as well as government. The standards set include the minimum and the maximum contaminant concentration.
Proper Water Treatment Needs to Meet High Standards
The use of household activated carbon filters and the procedure of boiling water are not sufficient when treating all contaminants present in water that is from an unknown origin. During the 19th century natural spring water was considered safe for drinking and other purposes. However, all sources of water must now be tested and has to undergo a microbiological and chemical analysis, of which is costly, in order to determine if treatment is required or not and also to determine the proper method of purification.
The World Health Organization divulged a report in 2007 that stated that over a billion people did not have access to quality drinking water, and that annually there were around four billion with diarrhoea related diseases due to inadequate hygiene and sanitation and unsafe drinking water. Statistics have revealed that around two million die each year from such related diseases. Around 95 percent of such medical cases can be prevented through access to safe drinking water and modifications to the immediate environment.
Treated Water Can Help Save Lives
A huge number of lives can be saved annually by using simple water treating techniques that include UV disinfecting, chlorination, storing water in sterile containers, reverse osmosis and using filters. Particularly in third world countries such as South Africa and surrounding reducing deaths related to waterborne diseases, has initiated a major public health aim. Recently there have been strict regulations instilled with regards to water purification, in order to reduce the number of illnesses that have recently emerged due to contaminated water.
There are various water sources such as groundwater that emerges from deep underground. This type is filtered naturally by the layers of soil and rock and does not usually require any sort of filtering other than adding chloramines or chlorine as a precautionary disinfectant. Such water sources may extract from wells or boreholes or may emerge as springs.
Water Purification Systems Reduce or Completely Remove Bacteria
Pathogenic protozoa or bacteria are usually absent. All depending in which strata has flowed; groundwater is usually high in sulphate, magnesium, calcium and dissolved solids. Other irons may also be present such as bicarbonate and chlorine.